are processes involved in wool production?
Fulling & finishing
8. Chemical Finishes
wool is processed into its finished products by either the worsted or
the worst system, the wool is combed after drying.
This is method is only used on longer wools, and as a result the
fibers are laid parallel to one another.
Worsted materials normally have a smooth finish, and are extremely
Some examples of worsted products include suits, dresses, and
Wools of short length are often used in the wollen system. In this system the wool is not combed, but rather carded. As a result, the materials are thicker, and garments look bulky in appearance. Some examples of the wollen products include, sweaters, and carpets.
The first step in processing wool is shearing.
Next, the wool must be washed; in order to remove grease and
other impurities the wool could have accumulated while being out in the
is done by the wool being moved through a series of tubs, which are filled
with soapy water.
The first tub is set at a very warm 140 F, and then rinsed off in
It is during this step, that the lanolin (grease of wool),
is separated off, and later used to help make cosmetics and soaps.
The wool is then passed through a series of rollers and
Wool from different batches are then mixed together
mechanically, thus creating a slightly different set of colors.
This in turn, helps create a standard staple length and diameter,
for the wool.
The clean wool is then passed through rollers, which in
turn, straighten the fibers and removing unwanted matter.
do vary in size and speed, which forms a thin web of fibers.
Slivers, or continuous ropes are then formed by the use of steel
fingers which divide
the wool and roll the strands on top of one another.
Coarser fibers, are then twisted into ropelike structures, a
process called roving.
Finer fibers are then combed and prepared for spinning into yarn.
After spinning, the wool is either woven or knitted.
interlocks to pieces of yarn at right angles to one another.
interlocks yarns and loops and is done much faster than hand
fabric is then passed through quality control inspection, where
as broken thread, and variations in color are identified.
the fabric passes inspection it then continues on to the fulling stage.
Here the fabric shrinks both in length and width.
type of system the wool was processed by determines the type of finishing
the fabric will have.
are brushed, and worsteds are often enhanced by special treatments.
is the next step the fabric will go through.
In this process the fabric goes through hot and then cold water in
order to set the cloth.
is done in order to prevent the fabric form shrinking.
This is done by dampening the fabric with a sponge, and then
rolling it in muslin.
finishes are then added to the wool, but the amount and type is determined
by the end products use.